Stapedotomy is a surgical procedure to treat loss of hearing most commonly caused by Otosclerosis, a condition that affects the normal functioning of the stapes bone.
The stapes is the last hearing bone in the chain of bones in the middle ear; and it is normally mobile and attached by a ligament to an opening of the bone that houses the inner ear, called the oval window. A fixed stapes bone caused by bone formation in the ligament that surrounds the base, stops movement of the bone and thus causes a mechanical or conductive hearing loss.
Stapedotomy (sometimes known as stapedectomy) surgery involves replacing the damaged stapes with a prosthesis (artificial stapes) so that sound is effectively transmitted from the eardrum to the inner ear bypassing the stapes. This resolves the problem of conductive hearing loss.